SIU-ICUD consultation on bladder cancer: basic science.

To provide a condensed summary of the Basic Science chapter that was included in the Third International Consultation on Bladder Cancer.

World bladder cancer basic science experts used the published literature to create summaries of recent progress in their areas of expertise.

The completion of several large-scale genomics projects coupled with a strong collaborative culture within the research community and the exciting clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockade have combined to transform the bladder cancer research landscape. Bladder cancer molecular subtypes and the presence of specific DNA alterations provide important information about disease heterogeneity that has direct implications for clinical management, and some can be targeted by compounds that are already clinically available. Tests are being developed that can measure many of these alterations non-invasively in peripheral blood or urine, raising confidence that they could be used as biomarkers for surveillance and monitoring the effects of local and systemic therapies.

Although the bulk of the mechanistic work lies ahead, the genomics results have created a hypothesis-generating description of bladder cancer heterogeneity that has set the stage for deeper mechanistic studies, and they have already provided us with extremely attractive candidate biomarkers to guide clinical practice. Here, we will summarize the recent progress in basic bladder cancer research and highlight near-term opportunities for the future.

World journal of urology. 2018 Dec 13 [Epub]

David J McConkey, Seth P Lerner

Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute, Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. ., Scott Department of Urology, Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.