Since 2016, five new programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This review will summarize the data supporting the widespread use of these agents and highlight areas of ongoing clinical development.
PD-1/L1 axis inhibition has demonstrated clear superiority to chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer in the second-line setting. A multitude of ongoing studies are investigating the feasibility and efficacy of incorporating established and novel immunotherapies into earlier lines of therapy, including non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer and even non-muscle-invasive disease. Early-phase clinical trials have begun to explore the safety and activity of novel immune-oncology combinations across a range of clinical settings. Immunotherapy has a clearly defined role in the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer both in the platinum-refractory setting and in the first-line cisplatin-ineligible setting. Ongoing clinical trials will dictate how to best incorporate immunotherapy into earlier lines of therapy and define the safety and activity of novel immunotherapy agents and combinations.
Current oncology reports. 2019 Feb 26*** epublish ***
Michael Lattanzi, Arjun V Balar
Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA., Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. .