Adjuvant intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is considered as the first-line agent in patients with high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after surgery. There are no data in India where there is a high prevalence of tubercle bacillus and inherent immunity against Bacillus sp. The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes of intravesical BCG in the Indian population.
A retrospective study of 101 patients who underwent intravesical BCG for high-risk NMIBC between January 2006 and December 2015 was carried out in a single centre. We compared the recurrence-free rate and progression rate of patients who received induction alone and induction with maintenance BCG therapy. The safety profile of intravesical BCG therapy was also assessed in the study.
After a median follow up of 2 years, the disease-free survival (DFS) rates of the induction group and maintenance group were 82% and 88% respectively (p = 0.233). There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 2 years in those who receive maintenance BCG (95%) and those with induction BCG (94.7%; p = 0.721). A total of 69.36% of our patients had local adverse events.
Our results suggest that maintenance therapy does not enhance the therapeutic effects of BCG in patients who respond favourably to 6 weeks of induction. Additional prospective studies are warranted in those countries where tuberculosis exposure is prevalent.
Therapeutic advances in urology. 2019 Mar 05*** epublish ***
Julie Mariam Joshua, Meenu Vijayan, Ginil Kumar Pooleri
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, Kerala, India., Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, Kerala, India ., Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, AIMS-Ponekkara, 682041 Kochi, Kerala, India.