Lymph node involvement in bladder cancer is common and has prognostic implications. Early and accurate identification of metastatic lymph nodes is, therefore, important in ensuring appropriate patient triage and management. The purpose of this review is to provide a pictorial and educational overview of the staging and imaging appearance of metastatic lymph nodes in bladder cancer. Additionally, a secondary aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of the diagnostic accuracy of common imaging modalities available for detecting metastatic lymph nodes in affected patients.
Translational andrology and urology. 2018 Oct [Epub]
Prasad R Shankar, Daniel Barkmeier, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Richard H Cohan
Department of Radiology, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.