Clinical T1 (cT1) bladder cancer is associated with high rates of recurrence, upstaging, and progression. Guidelines recommend that these patients be treated with adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy (BCG) or upfront radical cystectomy (RC).
We analyzed the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identify demographic and clinical determinants of guideline-based treatment (GBT) and RC.
We identified 47,694 patients in the NCDB with cT1 bladder cancer diagnosed in 2004-2013. Those who did not receive any treatment or underwent primary chemotherapy were excluded. Mixed effects logistic regression adjusted for facility-level variation was used to identify factors associated with receipt of GBT.
The median age of the cohort was 72 years (interquartile range, 63-79). Of the patients, 22.4% were female, 5.1% were African American, and 2.7% had variant histology. Nearly one-third of patients received GBT: 11,453 (24%) were initially treated with BCG and 3320 (7%) were initially treated with RC. Recent year of diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.85; P < .001), treatment at an academic center (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.27-2.59; P < .001), and private insurance status (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.19-1.66; P < .001) were associated with increased odds of GBT. Of patients who received GBT, variant histology (OR, 5.89; 95% CI, 4.65-7.47; P < .001), and recent year of diagnosis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.50-2.39; P < .001) were associated with greater odds of RC.
There is low treatment-guideline compliance for patients with cT1 disease. However, there appears to be a temporal trend toward increased use of GBT. Efforts should be made to understand why many cT1 bladder cancer patients do not receive GBT.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2019 Jan 19 [Epub ahead of print]
Ashwin S Balakrishnan, Samuel L Washington, Maxwell V Meng, Sima P Porten
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA., Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address: .