Procoagulant activity attributed to tissue factor (TF, CD142) bound to lipid microvesicles has previously been shown to be elevated in urine of patients with various solid cancers. The phosphorylation of the C-terminal signal transduction peptide (STP) at Ser253 and Ser258 has been determined to be important for the formation of TF-microvesicles. The purpose of this work was to investigate the marker potential of the TF-STP domain in urine of patients with cancer using immunologic methods to quantitate unphosphorylated TF and TF phosphorylated at Ser253 and Ser258.
We developed monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against the 3 C-terminal STP species of TF and constructed 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that specifically recognize unphosphorylated TF and TF phosphorylated at either Ser253 or Ser258. As proof of principle, a preliminary pilot study with stored Biobank-sourced urinary specimens from 45 healthy individuals and 38 patients with bladder cancer were studied using these ELISAs.
We report that all 3 species of TF were found in the urine. Two species, TF-pSer258 and unphosphorylated TF, were significantly elevated in the cohort with bladder cancer. The sensitivity of TF-pSer258 by the receiver operator characteristic technique was 86.8%, with a specificity of 97.8% at a cutoff value of 0.55 ng/mL. Using a simplified sample preparation method for the ELISAs on the same clinical specimens, the sensitivity of TF-pSer258 was 86.8%, with a specificity of 93.3% at a cutoff value of 0.53 ng/mL. The unphosphorylated TF species was significantly elevated in later stage bladder cancer with best results seen for the unfractionated preparation technique (95% confidence interval, 10.55-15.74; N = 20) but not early stage non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (95% confidence interval, 4.71-10.73; N = 18; P < .02).
The development of these new ELISAs allows the quantitation of the urinary biomarkers TF-pSer258 and unphosphorylated TF, which may lead to a new diagnostic approach to the early detection of bladder cancer and warrant further investigation in a prospective trial.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2018 Nov 17 [Epub ahead of print]
Robert S Greenfield, Thomas M Herd, Kathryn Date, Peter Cooper, Anthony O'Kane, Eric Gardiner, Anthony Maraveyas
C-Term Diagnostics Ltd, Southampton, Hants, UK., Joint Centre for Cancer Studies, Hull York Medical School, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, UK., Department of Coagulation, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK., Fusion Antibodies Ltd, Belfast, N. Ireland., Joint Centre for Cancer Studies, Hull York Medical School, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, UK. Electronic address: .