Previous preclinical studies have indicated that the activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling results in inhibition of the growth of various types of tumors. Indeed, several glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone and prednisone, have been prescribed for the treatment of, for example, hematological malignancies and castration-resistant prostate cancer. By contrast, the role of glucocorticoid-mediated glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the progression of bladder cancer remains far from being fully understood. Nonetheless, emerging evidence implies its unique functions in urothelial cancer cells. Moreover, the levels of glucocorticoid receptor expression have been documented to significantly associate with the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. This review summarizes the available data suggesting the involvement of glucocorticoid-mediated glucocorticoid receptor signaling in urothelial tumor outgrowth and highlights the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The molecules/pathways that contribute to modulating glucocorticoid receptor activity and function in bladder cancer cells are also discussed.
Cancers. 2018 Dec 04*** epublish ***
Hiroki Ide, Satoshi Inoue, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. ., Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. ., Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. .