Successful treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) relies heavily on our ability to accurately detect disease typically in the presence of hematuria as well as to detect the early recurrent tumors in patients with a history of NMIBC. Unfortunately, the current biomarker landscape for NMIBC is a work in progress. Cystoscopy continues to be the gold standard, but can still miss 10% of tumors. Therefore, physicians frequently use additional tools to aid in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, such as urinary cytology. The urinary cytology is a good option for high-grade disease; however, it is limited by low sensitivity in detecting low-grade disease, as well as variable interpretation among cytopathologists. Thus, the limitations of cystoscopy and urinary cytology have brought to light the need for more robust diagnostic assays. In this non-systematic review, we discuss the performance, potential advantages or disadvantages of these tests, and the future direction of biomarkers in NMIBC.
World journal of urology. 2018 Nov 22 [Epub ahead of print]
Izak Faiena, Charles J Rosser, Karim Chamie, Hideki Furuya
Department of Urology, Institute of Urologic Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA., Clinical and Translational Research Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street Suite 353, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA., Clinical and Translational Research Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street Suite 353, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA. .