Updates on the Genetics and Molecular Subtypes of Urothelial Carcinoma and Select Variants.

Urothelial carcinoma is a morphologically and genomically heterogeneous disease that exhibits a wide spectrum of morphologic features and molecular alterations and subtypes. Classic urothelial carcinoma (not otherwise specified) is the most common tumor type that develops in the urinary bladder but many, well-documented, variant histologies are commonly encountered in approximately one-third of invasive urothelial carcinoma, including squamous, glandular, micropapillary, sarcomatoid, small cell/neuroendocrine, clear cell, lymphoepithelioma-like, and plasmacytoid types, among others. In this review, we provide an update on the molecular advances in urothelial carcinoma and some of its variant histologies.

Surgical pathology clinics. 2018 Oct 17 [Epub]

Hikmat Al-Ahmadie, Gopa Iyer

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: ., Department of Medicine, Genitourinary Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.