Clinical outcomes for patients with bladder cancer have largely remained unchanged over the last three decades despite improvements in surgical techniques, perioperative therapies, and postoperative management. Current management still heavily relies on pathologic staging that does not always reflect an individual patient's risk. The genesis and progression of bladder cancer is now increasingly recognized as being a result of alterations in several pathways that affect the cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular signaling, gene regulation, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion. Multiplexed assessment of biomarkers associated with alterations in these pathways offers novel insights into tumor behavior while identifying panels that are capable of reproducibly predicting patient outcomes. Future management of bladder cancer will likely incorporate such prognostic molecular models for risk stratification and treatment personalization.
Cancer treatment and research. 2018 Jan [Epub]
Anirban P Mitra, Siamak Daneshmand
Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, MC 9178, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA. ., Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, MC 9178, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.