Computed tomography (CT) urography is the best noninvasive method of evaluating the upper urinary tract for urothelial malignancies. However, the utility of CT urography is heavily contingent on the use of proper image acquisition protocols. This article focuses on the appropriate protocols for optimizing CT urography acquisitions, including contrast administration and the timing of imaging acquisitions, as well as the use of ancillary techniques to increase collecting system distention. In addition, imaging findings are discussed that should raise concern for urothelial carcinoma at each of the 3 segments of the urinary tract: the intrarenal collecting systems, ureters, and bladder.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2018 Aug [Epub]
Siva P Raman, Elliot K Fishman
Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, JHOC 3251, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, JHOC 3251, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.