Temporal trends in venous thromboembolism after radical cystectomy

To determine whether the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following radical cystectomy (RC) is changing overtime.

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer from 2011 to 2016. VTE was defined as pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis within 30 days of RC. VTE rate by year was assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Associations between patient features and VTE were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression.

A total of 8,241 patients undergoing RC were identified, of whom 348 (4.2%) were diagnosed with VTE. VTE was diagnosed at a median of 13 days (IQR: 7-19) after RC, with 171 (49%) occurring after hospital discharge. Notably, the rate of VTE after RC was found to significantly decrease over time, from 5.1% in 2011 to 2.8% in 2016 (P = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, clinical factors significantly associated with increased odds of VTE included congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83, P = 0.01), prolonged operative time (OR: 1.48-1.56, P = 0.02-0.01), and receipt of a perioperative blood transfusion (OR = 1.27; P = 0.04). When postoperative complications were adjusted for, sepsis/septic shock (OR = 2.37, P<0.001) and perioperative infection (OR = 1.74, P<0.001) were likewise found to be associated with VTE.

The rate of VTE after RC significantly decreased in recent years, potentially reflecting improvements in perioperative care. The specific casual factors underlying this trend, in addition to efforts to address identified risk factors for VTE, warrant continued study.

Urologic oncology. 2018 Jun 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Timothy D Lyon, Matthew K Tollefson, Paras H Shah, Katherine Bews, Igor Frank, R Jeffrey Karnes, R Houston Thompson, Elizabeth B Habermann, Stephen A Boorjian

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN., Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Surgical Outcomes Program, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN., Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: .