Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of second-line combination chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of second-line chemotherapy regimens with docetaxel and gemcitabine (GD), or paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GP) for advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) that did not respond to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

From 2002 to 2017, 78 patients with metastatic UCs that progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with either GD (n = 41) or GP (n = 37). We compared these two different regimens by analyzing their efficacy and toxicities in a retrospective manner.

Of the 78 patients enrolled in this study, it was possible to determine treatment efficacy in 70; the proportion of patients with objective response and disease control were 8.6 (9/70) and 54.3% (38/70), respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival in the total population (GP and GD) were 3.5 (95% CI 0.6-53.3) and 9.6 months (95% CI 1.2-53.3), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two regimens (GD or GP) regarding survival outcomes. Treatment-related adverse events were mostly manageable, but one patient died as a result of febrile neutropenia. The presence of liver metastasis and anemia (Hb < 10.0 g/dl) was prognostic factors for worse survival.

Combination chemotherapy with either GP or GD was a favorable and well-tolerated second-line treatment regimen for patients with advanced or metastatic UC following the failure of a platinum-based regimen. Further study using a large prospective cohort is needed to identify patients who will benefit from second-line combination therapy.

International journal of clinical oncology. 2018 May 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Yuji Takeyama, Minoru Kato, Chikako Nishihara, Takeshi Yamasaki, Taro Iguchi, Satoshi Tamada, Katsuyuki Kuratsukuri, Tatsuya Nakatani

Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan., Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan. .