There are currently no reported randomized trials that characterize the staging or therapeutic benefit of performing a lymph node dissection in either bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Several unanswered questions remain in this domain focused on the indications and patient selection for pelvic lymph node dissection, extent of dissection, its impact on outcome, and potential risks. However, the results of observational studies suggest that the burden of metastasis is high in both diseases when muscle invasive and performing a lymphadenectomy can provide prognostic information and yield therapeutic benefit.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2018 Feb 21 [Epub]
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Michael C Risk, Badrinath R Konety
Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Delaware Street Southeast, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA., Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Delaware Street Southeast, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address: .