Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide and is, in fact, the most expensive cancer on a per-patient to treat basis. There is a critical need to implement new tests into clinical practice to improve the quality of clinical care, decrease unnecessary invasive therapies and ultimately save costs. Currently, no molecular or genetic biomarker has been widely integrated into daily clinical practice. However, major milestones have been achieved in our understanding of the molecular alterations in BCa that will provide the basis for integrating molecular and genetic biomarkers into clinical decision making to guide management. Clinical implementation of such novel molecular and genetic concepts is the cornerstone in an effort to usher the age of precision medicine into patient care. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the emerging role of molecular biomarkers in patients receiving BCG immunotherapy as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in BCa. Expert commentary: Molecular predictive and prognostic biomarkers in BCa are promising diagnostic options that will pave the way for molecular-based personalized medicine.
Expert review of molecular diagnostics. 2018 Mar 15 [Epub ahead of print]
Dafina Ilijazi, Mohammad Abufaraj, Melanie R Hassler, Iris E Ertl, David D'Andrea, Shahrokh F Shariat
a Department of Urology , Medical University of Vienna , Vienna , Austria .