Environmental factors that play a role in the urothelial carcinogenesis have been well characterized. Current research is continuously exploring potential heritable forms of bladder cancer. Lynch syndrome is a well-known inheritable disease that increases the risk for a variety of cancers, including urothelial carcinomas. Screening of patients with known Lynch syndrome is important to evaluate for development of new primary tumors. Further study may provide more information on what level of follow-up each patient needs. Recent data suggest that mismatch repair mutations confer a greater risk for urothelial cancer. Additional large patient series as well as advancement of molecular testing may provide triage for Lynch syndrome patients in regards to the frequency and type of screening best suited for individual patient.
Future oncology (London, England). 2018 Jan 18 [Epub ahead of print]
Aaron Phelan, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi, Shaobo Zhang, Maria R Raspollini, Monica Cheng, Hristos Z Kaimakliotis, Michael O Koch, Liang Cheng
Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA., Unit of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cordoba, Spain & Champalimaud Clinical Center, Lisbon 1400038, Portugal., Institute of Pathological Anatomy & Histopathology, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), United Hospitals, Ancona 60126, Italy., Histopathology & Molecular Diagnostics, University Hospital Careggi, Florence 50134, Italy., Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.