Update of Pheochromocytoma Syndromes: Genetics, Biochemical Evaluation, and Imaging.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) are rare commonly benign neuroendocrine tumors that share pathology features and clinical behavior in many cases. While PCCs are chromaffin-derived tumors that arise within the adrenal medulla, PGLs are neural-crest-derived tumors that originate at the extraadrenal paraganglia. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma (PPGL) syndromes are rapidly evolving entities in endocrinology and oncology. Discoveries over the last decade have significantly improved our understanding of the disease. These include the finding of new hereditary forms of PPGL and their associated susceptibility genes. Additionally, the availability of new functional imaging tools and advances in targeted radionuclide therapy have improved diagnostic accuracy and provided us with new therapeutic options. In this review article, we present the most recent advances in this field and provide an update of the biochemical classification that further reflects our understanding of the disease.

Frontiers in endocrinology. 2018 Nov 27*** epublish ***

Rami Alrezk, Andres Suarez, Isabel Tena, Karel Pacak

Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.