Use and Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Intravesical Treatment for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): a Systematic Review.

Intravesical antibiotics (IVA) has been used for prophylaxis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). However, there is a lack of comprehensive evidence and consensus on its use.

We conducted a systematic review to collect all available data about the effectiveness of IVA in prevention and treatment of rUTIs and to give an overview on the outcomes to date.

A systematic review was carried out for all English language articles from inception to August 2017, according to the Cochrane and PRISMA standards using MEDLINE, Scopus, Biomed Central, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science with references cross-checked and individual urology journals hand-searched.

After an initial identification of 658 studies, we screened 37 abstracts and 18 full-text papers of which 11 were included in our final review. This included 285 patients with a mean age of 52 years and a female:male ratio of 129:117. The IVA used was gentamicin, neomycin/polymyxin, neomycin or colistin and IVA was used for rUTIs as prophylaxis in 5 studies (n = 168) and treatment in 6 studies (n = 117). Overall, a good reduction in symptomatic UTI was seen in 78%, with a short-term success rate and discontinuation rates of 71% (120/168) and 8% (14/168) in the prophylaxis group and 88% (103/117) and 5% (6/117) in the treatment groups respectively. There was a change in the sensitivity of organisms in 30% (50/168) and 23% (27/117) in the treatment and prophylaxis groups respectively. Twenty patients discontinued their IVA instillations which were higher for the non-gentamicin group (11%) compared to the gentamicin group (5%). The side effects were minor and included allergy, suprapubic discomfort, autonomic dysreflexia, urinary tract infections and diarrhoea. Intravesical antimicrobial instillation seems to be a relatively safe and effective method for the prophylaxis and treatment of recurrent UTIs, especially in the short term. It gives clinicians an alternative treatment modality in high-risk patients predisposed to UTIs where all other forms of systemic treatments have failed.

Current urology reports. 2018 Aug 09*** epublish ***

Amelia Pietropaolo, Patrick Jones, Mike Moors, Brian Birch, Bhaskar K Somani

Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK., Primary Care and Population Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK., Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK. .

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