Potential complications after inguinal hernia repair include uncontrolled post-operative pain and post-operative urinary retention (POUR). Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols aim to mitigate post-operative morbidity. We study the impact of ERAS measures alongside discharge without a narcotic prescription on post-operative pain and POUR after minimally invasive inguinal hernia repair.
A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified patients that underwent minimally invasive inguinal hernia repair at a single institution. Intra-operative data included operative time, narcotic usage, non-narcotic adjunct medication, and fluid administration. Primary outcomes included rates of POUR and uncontrolled post-operative pain. Operations performed after 2018 were included in the ERAS cohort. Uncontrolled post-operative pain was defined as needing additional narcotic prescriptions, admission, or ER visits for post-operative pain. POUR was defined as requiring an indwelling urethral catheter at discharge, admission for retention, or returning to the ER for urinary retention.
Between January 2008 and March 2021, 1097 patients who underwent minimally invasive inguinal hernia repair were identified. 91.3% of these procedures were laparoscopic and 8.7% were robotic. Average patient age was 57.4 years, 93% were male. Patients receiving care after initiation of the ERAS protocol were significantly less likely to experience POUR when compared to their prior counterparts (1.4% vs. 4.2% p = 0.01); there was no difference in post-operative pain complications (1.4% vs. 2.9% p = 0.15). Patients who were discharged without a narcotic prescription had 0% incidence of POUR. Significant differences were found between the ERAS and non-ERAS cohort regarding narcotic usage and fluid administration. Age, higher fluid volume, and higher narcotic usage were found to be risk factors for POUR while ERAS, sugammadex, and dexamethasone were found to be protective.
Implementation of an ambulatory ERAS protocol can significantly decrease urinary retention and narcotic usage rates after minimally invasive inguinal hernia repair.
Surgical endoscopy. 2022 Jan 04 [Epub ahead of print]
Ryan C Broderick, Jonathan Z Li, Rachel R Blitzer, Pranav Ahuja, Alice Race, Gene Yang, Bryan J Sandler, Santiago Horgan, Garth R Jacobsen
Division of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Center for the Future of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA., Division of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Center for the Future of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. ., University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.