Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is common. However, risk factors for POUR and its consequences, specifically on postoperative renal function, have not been well defined.
We performed a review of prospectively collected data on consecutive adult patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty from August 2014 to December 2015. Catheters were placed preoperatively and removed on the first or second postoperative day. The exclusion criterion was traumatic catheter insertion or the presence of fracture or neoplasm. Univariate and multiple logistic regression identified associations with POUR and its invasive therapies. Subgroup analysis of renal function by incidence of preoperative bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and POUR was performed with nonparametric testing.
A total of 591 operations met inclusion criteria. The incidence of POUR was 6.4% and was directly related to a positive history of BOO (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15) and increased the duration of urinary catheterization (OR: 1.04). These factors, in addition to preoperative incontinence (OR: 8.36, 28.69) and lengthier hospitalizations (OR: 1.37, 1.30), were significantly associated with intermittent straight catheterization and reinsertion of an indwelling catheter to treat POUR. Serum creatinine increased with combined preoperative BOO and POUR (+0.22 mg/dL) but was preserved in others (+0.02-0.04 mg/dL) (P < 0.01).
Preoperative BOO and longer catheterization increased the risk of POUR and were associated with the use of invasive modalities to treat POUR. POUR was associated with a longer hospitalization and impaired renal function in those with preoperative BOO; therefore, renal function should be monitored closely and nephrotoxic medications used cautiously when using urinary catheters in this patient population.
Retrospective Analysis, Level IV.
Arthroplasty today. 2020 Nov 03*** epublish ***
Joshua A Shapiro, Paul M Alvarez, Anthony V Paterno, Christopher W Olcott, Daniel J Del Gaizo
Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA., School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.