Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Review

Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being "primary" if no continence has ever been achieved or "secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis.

This review was performed by evaluating the literature on nocturnal enuresis published between 1970 and 2015, available via PubMed and using the keywords "nocturnal enuresis," "incontinence," "pediatric," "review," and "treatment."

Children with nocturnal enuresis produce urine at higher rates during the night, and may have lower bladder capacities. Some children with nocturnal enuresis may also have daytime urgency, frequency, and urinary incontinence. Treatment includes aggressive treatment of accompanying constipation or urinary tract infections, behavioral changes, and medical therapy. Alarm therapy remains the first-line treatment modality for primary nocturnal enuresis. High rates of patient compliance and relapse mean that alternative treatments remain on the agenda.

Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem that has multifaceted effects on both the child and the family. Due to multiple etiologic factors, nocturnal enuresis is still not clearly defined.

Nephro-urology monthly. 2016*** epublish ***

Ersan Arda, Basri Cakiroglu, David T Thomas

Hisar Intercontinental Hospital, Department of Urology, Istanbul, Turkey., Maltepe University Medical School, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Istanbul, Turkey.