OBJECTIVE: To present the authors' experiences with urologic complications associated with various techniques used to create a continent stoma (CS), augmentation cystoplasty (AC), and neobladder in the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) population.
METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of patients who underwent CS with or without bladder augmentation were identified from an institutional review board-approved database of 1208 EEC patients. Surgical indications, tissue type, length of hospital stay, age, preoperative bladder capacity, prior genitourinary surgeries, postoperative urological complications, and continence status were reviewed.
RESULTS: Among the EEC patients reviewed, 133 underwent CS (80 male, 53 female). Mean follow-up time after initial continent stoma was 5.31 years (range: 6 months to 20 years). Appendix and tapered ileum were the primary bowel segments used for the continent channel and stoma in the EEC population. The most common stomal complications in this population were stenosis, incontinence, and prolapse. Seventy-nine percent of EEC CS patients underwent AC primarily done with sigmoid colon or ileum. Eleven patients (8%) underwent neobladder creation with either colon or a combination of colon and ileum. Bladder calculi, vesicocutaneous fistula, and pyelonephritis were the most common non-stomal complications. Stomal ischemia was significantly increased in Monti ileovesicostomy compared to Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy in classic bladder exstrophy patients (p = 0.036). Furthermore, pyelonephritis was more than twice as likely in colonic neobladder than all other reservoir tissue types in the same cohort (OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.762-3.301, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study examining catheterizable stomas in the exstrophy population. While Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy is preferred to Monti ileovesicostomy because it is technically less challenging, it may also confer a lower rate of stomal ischemia. Furthermore, even though ileum or colon can be used in AC with equally low complication rates, practitioners must be wary of potential urologic complications that should be primarily managed by an experienced reconstructive surgeon.
Inouye BM, Shah BB, Massanyi EZ, Di Carlo HN, Kern AJ, Tourchi A, Baradaran N, Stewart D, Gearhart JP. Are you the author?
James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Division of Pediatric Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Division of Pediatric Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Reference: J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Jul 3. pii: S1477-5131(14)00173-9.
UroToday.com Urinary Incontinence Section