Exploring the relation between obesity and urinary incontinence: Pathophysiology, clinical implications, and the effect of weight reduction, ICI-RS 2018.

To evaluate the relationship between obesity and urinary incontinence (UI) and to determine the effect of weight reduction on the severity of incontinence.

This is a consensus report of the proceedings of a Research Proposal from the annual International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society, 14 June to 16 June, 2018 (Bristol, UK): "What are the relationships between obesity and UI, and the effects of successful bariatric surgery?"

Obesity is an increasing problem worldwide and is associated with many adverse effects on health and quality of life. From both translational and clinical studies, there is a strong relationship between obesity and the occurrence of UI. Both mechanical and metabolic factors seem to play an important role including systemic inflammation and oxidative stress due to the release of cytokines in visceral adipose tissue. The success rate of anti-incontinence surgery does not seem to be greatly affected by body mass index (BMI), although reliable data and long-term follow-up are currently lacking. Both weight reduction programs and bariatric surgery can result in amelioration of UI. Various studies have shown that weight loss (particularly that associated with bariatric surgery) can reduce incontinence, and the degree of weight loss is positively correlated with improvement in symptoms.

Obesity is strongly associated with an increased prevalence of both stress and urgency UI. The treatment outcome does not seem to be highly dependent on BMI. Weight reduction is positively correlated with improvement of incontinence symptoms and therefore should be advocated in the management.

Neurourology and urodynamics. 2019 Dec [Epub]

Tom Marcelissen, Ralf Anding, Marcio Averbeck, Ann Hanna-Mitchell, Sajjad Rahnama'i, Linda Cardozo

Department of Urology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands., Department of Neurourology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany., Department of Urology, Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil., Department of Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio., Department of Urology, Uniklinik Aachen, Aachen, Germany., Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.