Pelvic organ prolapse is the downward descent of the pelvic floor organs and has a prevalence of 3%-6% and can even reach to 50% if defined by a vaginal examination. The anatomical concepts of pelvic diaphragm, lateral attachment of vagina to arcus tendineus fascia pelvis, and intrinsic and extrinsic sphincter control mechanisms are elaborated. The anatomic and physiological mechanisms of autonomic and voluntary control of continence are discussed. The clinical and urodynamic tests and their implications in guiding the management are explained. Finally, uroflowmetry, cystometry, urethral pressure profile, postvoid urine measurement, leak point pressure (LPP) test, video urodynamic tests, and electromyography studies of pelvic floor are discussed as an integral part of the assessment.
Journal of mid-life health. 0000 Jan [Epub]
Nidhi Sharma, Sudakshina Chakrabarti
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.