Radiation-induced urethral stricture occurs most often due to radiation for prostate cancer. It is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy. Stricture rates are lowest in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy, occur more frequently in those who require brachytherapy and show highest stricture rates in patients receiving a combination of external beam radiation and brachytherapy. Strictures are mostly located at the bulbomembranous part of the urethra. Diagnostic work-up should include basic urologic work-up, ultrasound, uroflowmetric assessment, urethroscopy, retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrography. Endoscopic management such as dilatation and internal urethrotomy has been proposed in short strictures. However these therapies have a high risk for recurrence. The success rate of urethroplasty is higher. Success rates of primary end-to-end anastomosis (EPA) have been reported to be 70-95 %; rates of incontinence are 7-40 %. While success rates of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU) range from 71-78 %, postoperative incontinence occurs in 10.5-44 %. Usually, postoperative incontinence can successfully be treated with an artificial urinary sphincter. It seems like EPA is the treatment of choice for short urethral strictures, whereas BMGU is indicated in longer, more complex strictures. Patients should be counselled with regard to length and location of strictures as well as with regard to postoperative incontinence.
Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2016 Oct 25 [Epub ahead of print]
C M Rosenbaum, O Engel, M Fisch, L A Kluth
Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland. ., Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland.