Female urethroplasty: contemporary thinking.

Female urethral stricture disease is a rare entity. To date, its diagnosis and treatment have been poorly studied, with small numbers, and variable definitions of success. With growing interest in this area of reconstructive urology, there is an increased number of surgical techniques. In this article, we review current trends, definitions, etiologies and surgical techniques available for management of FUSD.

We completed a review of publications in: English; Pubmed, and Google scholar. Key words identified for review were, female urethra stricture, female urethroplasty and female urethral dilation, female pelvic fracture, and female urethral reconstruction. Papers were reviewed, and references of relevant papers reviewed.

Iatrogenic injury is the most common cause of female urethral stricture disease. Assessment requires a thorough patient history, examination and either flexible cystoscopy and/or fluoroscopic urodynamics to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for stricture repair. Multiple open urethroplasty techniques are described with various grafts and flaps, with good medium-term success. Minimally invasive techniques remain well-employed but have poor long-term success, with increased failure with multiple attempts at treatment.

Female urethral stricture disease is a complex clinical entity that requires a measured and thorough evaluation. Individualized approach should be undertaken reviewing the patient's symptoms, the stricture's etiology, surrounding vaginal tissue health and stricture location. Promising medium-term success rates with vaginal flaps and buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty have been reported, with disappointing long-term results from repeated urethral dilation. Further research comparing techniques and defining successful long-term outcomes is required.

World journal of urology. 2018 Nov 19 [Epub ahead of print]

C West, A Lawrence

Eastern Health, Box Hill, VIC, Australia., Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. .