Frailty has emerged as a significant predictor of morbidity in urologic surgery, but its impact on outcomes of sling surgery for stress incontinence remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of frailty among women undergoing sling surgery, and determine the association of frailty with 30-day postoperative outcomes.
We analyzed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) in 2013-2016 to identify patients undergoing sling placement using Common Procedural Terminology, 10th edition, code 57288. Patients were categorized into two groups based on whether they underwent isolated sling placement or had a sling with concomitant prolapse surgery. Frailty was assessed using the 5-factor Modified Frailty Index (mFI-5) developed for use with the NSQIP data set. Patients were considered frail if two or more factors from the mFI-5 were present. Outcomes and complications within 30 days were captured from the NSQIP data and logistic regression models used to adjust for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and frailty.
We identified 25,887 women who underwent sling placement, 15,087 of whom underwent isolated sling placement (Group 1) and 10,800 who underwent sling with concomitant prolapse repair surgery (Group 2). Frailty was present in 9.3% of patients in Group 1 and 10.2% of patients in Group 2 (p=0.0122). Among those who underwent isolated sling placement, frailty was associated with increased length of hospital stay (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p=0.0008) and 30-day hospital readmission (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, p=0.0093). Older patients undergoing isolated sling placement were more likely to have longer operation time (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.0001) and hospital length of stay (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4, p<0.0001). Frailty was also associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in patients who underwent sling with concomitant prolapse repair (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6, p=0.0003), while age was not (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1, p=0.29).
We found that frailty was present in relatively few patients undergoing sling surgery. Adverse postoperative outcomes and complications were low overall. Increased age and frailty were both associated with longer length of stay. Frailty, but not age, was significantly associated with increased likelihood of hospital readmission within 30 days following surgery. Our findings provide insight into the preoperative characteristics of women undergoing sling surgery in a large national sample, suggesting the need for preoperative identification of the frail patient.
The Journal of urology. 2021 Apr 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Andrew R Medendorp, Hui Liu, Lorna Kwan, Anne M Suskind, Una J Lee, Katherine A Amin, Mark S Litwin, Jennifer T Anger
Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennnsylvania., University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California., University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California., Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington., University of Miami, Miami, Florida., Departments of Urology and Health Policy & Management, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California., Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.