Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is an age health-related issue that generates interest due to its considerable public health burden and the controversies surrounding treatment. It is highly prevalent affecting 30-40% of all women during their lifetime. Midurethral slings are the standard of gold standard treatment for female patients with SUI. They have excellent short-term cure rates; however, their efficacy tends to decrease over time and patients often report urinary incontinence recurrence. This paper addresses the applicability of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for the treatment of SUI in female patients. Cell-based treatment with periurethral injection of autologous adipose or muscle-derived stem cells have been used for SUI; however, the cure rates and SUI recurrence at 1 year were 40% and 70%, respectively. Novel minimally invasive approaches, such as low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapies have shown promising results in SUI animal models. In addition, local injection of growth factors, chemokines, and specific antibodies have shown histological evidence of neoangiogenesis, nerve, and sphincter regeneration in rodents and nonhuman primates with SUI. The use of bioactive factors and proteins secreted by cells, which is called secretomes, have been recognized as key regulators of various mechanisms, such as immunomodulation, angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue repair. Emerging therapies aiming to replace or restore tissues and organ functionality may improve the long-term efficacy and in the near future may represent the standard of care for the treatment of SUI.
Neurourology and urodynamics. 2019 May 16 [Epub ahead of print]
Joao P Zambon, Koudy J Williams, Julie Bennington, Gopal H Badlani
Department of Urology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina., Translational Medicine, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.