Vesico-urethral anastomotic stenosis following radical prostatectomy: a multi-institutional outcome analysis with a focus on endoscopic approach, surgical sequence, and the impact of radiation therapy.

To investigate the predictors of recurrence and of de novo incontinence in patients treated by transurethral incision or resection for vesico-urethral anastomotic stenosis (VUAS) after radical prostatectomy.

All patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for VUAS between March 2009 and October 2016 were identified in our multi-institutional database. Digital chart reviews were performed and patients contacted for follow-up. Recurrence was defined as any need for further instrumentation or surgery, and de-novo-incontinence as patient-reported outcome.

Of 103 patients undergoing endoscopic VUAS treatment, 67 (65%) underwent transurethral resection (TR) and 36 (35%) transurethral incision (TI). TI was performed more frequently as primary treatment compared to TR (58% vs. 37%; p = 0.041). Primary and repeated treatment was performed in 46 (45%) and 57 patients (55%), respectively. Overall, 38 patients (37%) had a history of radiation therapy. There was no difference in time to recurrence for primary vs repeat VUAS treatment, previous vs no radiation, TR compared to TI (all p > 0.08). Regarding treatment success, no difference was found for primary vs. repeat VUAS treatment (50% vs. 37%), previous radiation vs. no radiation (42% vs. 43%), and TR vs. TI (37% vs. 53%; all p ≥ 0.1). Postoperative de novo incontinence was more common after TI vs. TR (31% vs. 12%; p = 0.032), no difference was observed for previous radiation therapy vs. no radiation therapy (18% vs. 18%; p > 0.9) or primary vs. repeat VUAS treatment (22% vs. 16%; p = 0.5).

VUAS recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not predictable. Endoscopic treatment with TI showed a higher risk for de novo incontinence than TR, and previous irradiation and the number of treatments do not influence incontinence.

World journal of urology. 2020 Mar 31 [Epub ahead of print]

D Pfalzgraf, T Worst, J Kranz, J Steffens, G Salomon, M Fisch, C P Reiß, M W Vetterlein, C M Rosenbaum

Heilig-Geist-Hospital, Bensheim, Germany. ., University Medical Centre Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany., St.-Antonius-Hospital, Eschweiler, Germany., Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Centre, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.