Urinary incontinence is common after radical prostatectomy. Pelvic floor muscle training provides a plausible solution. Although early trials provided promising results, systematic reviews have questioned the efficacy of this intervention. A major consideration is that most clinical trials in men have applied principles developed for pelvic floor muscle training for stress urinary incontinence in women, despite differences in anatomy between sexes and differences in the mechanisms for continence/incontinence. Literature regarding continence control in men has been conflicting and often based on erroneous anatomy. New understanding of continence mechanisms in men, including the complex contribution of multiple layers of striated pelvic floor muscles, and detailed consideration of the impact of radical prostatectomy on continence anatomy and physiology, have provided foundations for a new approach to pelvic floor muscle training to prevent and treat incontinence after prostatectomy. An approach to training can be designed to target the pathophysiology of incontinence. This approach relies on principles of motor learning and exercise physiology, in a manner that is tailored to the individual patient. The aims of this review are to consider new understanding of continence control in men, the mechanisms for incontinence after radical prostatectomy, and to review the characteristics of a pelvic floor muscle training program designed to specifically target recovery of continence after prostatectomy.
Urologic oncology. 2019 Dec 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Paul W Hodges, Ryan E Stafford, Leanne Hall, Patricia Neumann, Shan Morrison, Helena Frawley, Stuart Doorbar-Baptist, Irmina Nahon, Jason Crow, Judith Thompson, Anne P Cameron
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: ., School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia., University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia., Women's and Men's Health Physiotherapy, Melbourne, Australia., Monash University, Melbourne, Australia., Sydney Physiotherapy Solutions, Sydney, Australia., University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia., Active Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Australia., Curtin University, Perth, Australia., Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.