Urinary incontinence is the inability of a woman to maintain bladder control. Symptoms range from urgency, frequency, nocturia to urge incontinence (1). It limits functional and social activities and leads to depression and social withdrawal. (2). This observational study aimed to describe the common urinary problems amongst gynecological consultations. It also describes the relationship of urinary incontinence with history of diabetes, previous gynecological surgery and prolapse.
The study was conducted as a descriptive cross sectional study from Jan-May 2015 at Qassim University Clinic, Buraidah. Women with urinary problem and those without urinary problems were compared for risk factors including diabetes, prolapse and previous gynecological surgery. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 22 (SPSS 22) was used to conduct proportion z-tests to determine the association of prolapse, gynecological surgeries and diabetes with urinary incontinence. To test the hypothesis, differences between two groups on the aforementioned factors were examined. The groups included participants that reported having urinary problems (n = 111) and those who do not have urinary problems (n = 100).
The most frequent complaints of participants with urinary problems were urgency (n = 66, 59.46%), Stress incontinence (SI) (n = 65, 58.56%) and frequency (n = 62, 55.86%). For participants with a urinary problem, 89.19% have not had a gynecological surgery (n = 99) and the remaining 10.81% of participants had a gynecological surgery (n = 12). For participants without a urinary problem, 97.0% have not had a gynecological surgery (n = 97) and the remaining 3.0% had a gynecological surgery (n = 3). For participants with a urinary problem, 72.97% did not have diabetes (n = 81) and the remaining 27.03% of participants did have diabetes (n = 30). For participants without a urinary problem, 92.0% did not have diabetes (n = 92) and the remaining 8.0% did report having diabetes (n = 8). For participants with a urinary problem, 91.89% had not experienced a prolapse (n = 102) and the remaining 8.11% of participants had experienced a prolapse (n = 9). For participants without a urinary problem, 98.0% have not experienced a prolapse (n = 98) and the remaining two participants had experienced a prolapse.
Gynecological conditions such as prolapse of the uterus, surgery involving the pelvic floor as well as medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus are some of the key risk factors for urinary incontinence. Therefore control of these risk factors can avoid development of urinary incontinence. Bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, drinking of less fluids are some of the preventive measures to avoid development of this embarrassing condition.
Materia socio-medica. 2016 Jun 01 [Epub]
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qassim University, College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia.