Outcomes of sequential third-line therapies in patients with refractory overactive bladder.

Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNTA) injection are third-line therapies for overactive bladder (OAB). Although the efficacy of each third-line treatment has been well established in clinical trials, there is far less information about performing one third-line therapy after the other. Our aim is thus to investigate the outcomes of post-SNM BoNTA and post-BoNTA SNM as "second" third-line treatments.

We retrospectively reviewed all OAB patients who had both SNM and BoNTA between 2013 and 2022. The primary endpoint was the response rates (>50% improvements) of the second third-line treatments. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of the patients who achieved total dry, the duration of treatments of patients who had significant responses, and risk factors that are associated with treatment response or duration of treatments.

A total of 172 patients had two third-line therapies. There were 104 patients who had post-SNM BoNTA and 68 patients who had post-BoNTA SNM. In the post-SNM BoNTA group, 62.5% (65/104) had significant responses after BoNTA treatment. In the post-BoNTA SNM group, 61.8% (44/68) had significant responses after SNM treatment. The proportions of patients who became dry were 21.2% and 23.5%, respectively. In the post-SNM BoNTA group, spinal pathology is associated with a lower probability of a significant response (48.9% vs. 73.7%, p-value = 0.0105).

BoNTA or SNM remains a viable option for refractory OAB after patients fail from one another. Spinal pathology is associated with a poorer response of post-SNM BoNTA.

International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 2024 May 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Po-Ming Chow, Tyler Trump, Howard B Goldman

Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.