Anatomical location and number of injection sites of intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA for females with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder: A scoping review.

The negative impact on quality of life and the economic-related burden to the patient and the health care system associated with idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB) is well-documented. Intradetrusor OnabotulinumtoxinA (BTN/A) injections are a well-used treatment modality for the management of overactive detrusor refractory to medical management, with well-documented efficacy and safety profiles. There is currently no best practice guideline for the administration of BTN/A for this procedure and historically the trigone of the bladder has been excluded from the injection paradigm given the risk of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).

A scoping review methodology was employed to assess available literature to evaluate current techniques used. There is emerging literature that the inclusion of the trigone may increase the efficacy of the procedure, while maintaining a similar adverse effect profile. Similar results could also be obtained by decreasing the number of injection sites. A scoping review was completed with systematic methodology using the Preferred Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses extension for Scoping Review checklist. The search strategy looked to evaluate BTN/A and number of injection sites and the inclusion of the trigone in female patients with iOAB. Studies with male or neurogenic bladder only were excluded. Mixed studies were included. A specialist research librarian was engaged, with supervision from a functional urologist using a combination of MeSH and natural language terms. Two investigators independently reviewed the titles and abstracts.

Twelve articles were included and were published between 2005 and 2021. There was no evidence of VUR in any of the results. All but one study reported similar if not improved efficacy of trigone-inclusion. Lower number of injection sites had similar efficacy profiles to higher numbers of intradetrusor injections.

Further high-quality randomized control trials of trigone inclusion and reduction of injection sites are required. It is hoped that with further exploration of intraoperative methods for BTN/A injections, the development of universally accepted guidelines may optimize management and experiences for patients with iOAB.

Neurourology and urodynamics. 2024 Jan 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Ellen Kelsey, Jessica Wynn, Angela Holmes, Kathryn McLeod

Department of Urological Surgery, Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.