Updates of Overactive Bladder in Pediatrics.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is clinically defined as urinary urgency with or without urinary incontinence. It is associated with daytime frequency or constipation and has a prevalence of approximately 5%-12% among 5- to 10-year-olds. The appropriate functional exchange between the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray matter, and prefrontal cortex is important for proper micturition control. Several studies on pediatric cases observed a link between OAB and neuropsychiatric problems, such as anxiety, depression, and attention deficit, and treatment of these comorbidities improved patient symptoms. In this review, we present the pathophysiology of OAB, its associated conditions, and aspects related to updates in OAB treatment, and we propose a step-by-step treatment approach following this sequence: behavioral therapy, medical treatment, and invasive treatment. Although anticholinergic drugs are the mainstay of OAB medical treatment, beta-3 agonists and alpha-blockers are now recommended as a result of significant advancements in pharmacologic treatment in the last 10 years. Electrical stimulation techniques and botulinum toxin are also effective and can be used, especially in conventional treatment-refractory cases.

International neurourology journal. 2023 Mar 31 [Epub]

Jisung Shim, Mi Mi Oh

Department of Urology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.