Is There Any Difference Between Depression and Anxiety in Overactive Bladder According to Sex? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Overactive bladder (OAB) is characterized by urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, accompanied by frequency and nocturia. It affects individuals of all ages and can predispose affected individuals to depression and anxiety. However, few studies have been conducted on this topic. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and OAB using validated instruments.

The search for articles was based on the following descriptors: overactive bladder, depression, and anxiety ("Urinary bladder, Overactive AND Depression and Anxiety") OR ("Urinary bladder, Overactive AND Depression" OR "Urinary bladder, Overactive AND Anxiety"). The databases searched included PubMed, MEDLINE, and SciELO.

Initially, 111 articles were identified, but only 11 articles, containing 11,784 participants with depression and 10,436 with anxiety, specifically addressed depression or anxiety and were included in this systematic review. Ten articles incorporated a quantitative analysis, with cohort, series, population-based, and cross-sectional designs. One qualitative study was also included. Three articles were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a total of 7,468 participants in whom depression was evaluated and 8,030 participants in whom anxiety was analyzed. Depression and anxiety were positively correlated with OAB. Men with OAB were considerably more likely than women to have anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.73) but there was no sex-related difference in depression (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21).

This study showed a positive correlation between OAB and anxiety and depression. Men were considerably more likely than women to have anxiety related to OAB, but depression levels in OAB patients were not sex-related. This review highlights the need to investigate depression and anxiety in patients with OAB.

International neurourology journal. 2017 Sep 12 [Epub]

Iane Glauce R Melotti, Cássia Raquel Teatin Juliato, Suelene Costa de Albuquerque Coelho, Marcelo Lima, Cassio Luiz Zanettini Riccetto

School of Medicine, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil., Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

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