The objective of this work was to make a review of urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction involved in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but also to study their physiopathology and potential treatments.
We conducted a literature review in the Pubmed database using PRISMA guidelines and the MeSH terms: sleep apnea, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, sexuality. All French and English articles published up to 2020 were evaluated.
The initial evaluation identified 240 articles from which 30 were included. References lists review allowed the inclusion of 26 additional articles. Nocturia, overactive bladder (OAB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) were associated with OSA. Increased levels of natriuretic peptides are behind nocturia. Nocturia is associated with higher Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI) (49±11 vs 24±8 episodes/hour with P=0.0001). The severity of nocturia is proportional to the severity of OSA with a positive predictive value of 71%. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxemia causes peripheral axonal damage with subsequent urgency incontinence. There is correlation between severity of OAB and the severity of OSA especially when the latter is moderate or severe. An odds ratio of 0.45 (CI95%: 0.18-0.71) is found for ED in patients who don't have OSA, associating the latter to an increased risk of ED. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxemia, the decrease in the levels of nitric oxide, and the increase in blood pressure and levels of endothelin 1 contribute to the development of ED. An early treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may allow a partial but significant control of urinary symptoms and erectile dysfunction associated with OSA.
OSA is associated with urinary tract symptoms (nocturia and OAB) and erectile dysfunction. The severity of associated symptoms is related to the severity of OSA. Urinary and sexual troubles are reversible after treatment of OSA by CPAP. OSA research is reasonable in case of pathologic nocturia or ED with loss of morning erections.
Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie. 2020 Aug 20 [Epub ahead of print]
A Clerget, A Kanbar, M Abdessater
Service d'urologie et de transplantation rénale, hôpital universitaire La pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de L'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France., Service d'urologie et de transplantation rénale, hôpital universitaire La pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de L'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address: .