Urological function and dysfunction in aging: Diagnosis and treatment.

Urinary symptoms worsen further the quality of life of persons already burdened by neurologic disease. Urinary symptoms frequently occur in the setting of neurologic diseases such as Parkinson disease and Parkinson-plus syndromes, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Urinary incontinence is associated with increased caregiver burden and enhances the risk of institutionalization among those living with dementia. Nocturia is associated with impaired sleep and work productivity. Providing patient-centered care for urinary symptoms involves assessing patient and family goals for care and incorporating a multicomponent assessment and treatment plan to align treatment options with the goals for care. Lifestyle and behavioral therapies are available as first-line treatment for most urinary symptoms. Consideration of drug therapy should aim to minimize the potential for adverse drug events such as orthostatic hypotension when using α blockers for men with concomitant prostate enlargement or anticholinergic side effects with anticholinergic bladder relaxant therapy. Interventional therapies such as percutaneous nerve stimulation, cystoscopic botulinum toxin injection, and sacral neuromodulation are available for patients who do not have significant urinary retention at baseline. Containment strategies aim to prevent skin irritation and provide support. With a patient-centered approach, providers empower patients to control and contain urinary symptoms and, thus, maintain confidence and social engagement.

Handbook of clinical neurology. 2019 Jan [Epub]

Theodore M Johnson, Camille P Vaughan

Center for Health in Aging, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: ., Center for Health in Aging, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.