The prevalence of nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is high, ranging from 20.9% to 48.8% in this population. Its underlying pathophysiology is complex and different from the non-neurogenic population. In the MS population, the pathophysiology may involve neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) such as detrusor overactivity (NDO), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, or detrusor underactivity resulting in reduced bladder capacity. Nocturnal polyuria is also a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of nocturia in MS patients and may be the result of specific mechanisms such as nocturnal hypertension through autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction or lack of diurnal variation of antidiuretic hormone production (ADH) due to demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord. Nocturia might be particularly burdensome in MS patients by contributing to fatigue, a common and highly debilitating symptom in this population. There is likely a complex and multidirectional relationship between nocturia, other sleep disorders, and fatigue in the MS population that has yet to be explored. The assessment of nocturia in MS should rely upon a thorough history and physical examination. Urinalysis should be done to rule out urinary tract infection, a frequency-volume chart might help elucidating the underlying mechanisms, and post-void residual volume may be of interest to screen for urinary retention that could be asymptomatic in MS patients. Other tests such as urodynamics or polysomnography are indicated in selected patients. The treatment should be tailored to the underlying cause. The first steps involve behavioral interventions and treatment of cofactors. When possible, the predominant mechanism should be addressed first. In case of predominant NDO, antimuscarinics and beta-3 agonists should be offered as a first-line treatment and intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin as a second-line treatment. In cases of incomplete bladder emptying, clean-intermittent self-catheterization is often used as part of multiple other interventions. In cases of nocturnal polyuria, desmopressin may be offered, inclusive of use of newer formulations (desmopressin acetate nasal spray, desmopressin orally disintegrated tablet) in countries where they are approved.
Reviews in urology. 2019 Jan [Epub]
Benoit Peyronnet, Lauren B Krupp, W Stuart Reynolds, Xavier Gamé, Gérard Amarenco, Jean-Nicolas Cornu, Lana Zhovtis Ryerson, Carrie Lyn Sammarco, Jonathan E Howard, Robert W Charlson, Roger R Dmochowski, Benjamin M Brucker
Department of Urology, University of Rennes Rennes, France., Department of Neurology, New York University New York, NY., Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN., Department of Urology, University of Toulouse Toulouse, France., Department of Neurourology, Tenon Hospital Paris, France., Department of Urology, University of Rouen Rouen, France., Department of Urology, New York University New York, NY.