Nocturia is considered to be a very bothersome lower urinary tract disorder. Yet, to date, the economic burden attributable to this poor health condition remains less well known.
To compare differences in health care resource utilization (HCRU), health care costs, and work productivity in adult patients with differing frequencies of nocturia episodes (i. e., < 2 vs. ≥ 2 nocturia episodes per night).
Adult patients with nocturia enrolled in an integrated proprietary database were recruited to complete a survey on their demographics, nocturia characteristics, and work productivity. Using patients' survey data and health care claims from the previous 6 months, those with < 2 (n = 197; 21.9%) versus ≥ 2 (n = 702; 78.1%) nocturia episodes per night were compared for differences in HCRU, health care costs, and work productivity after adjusting for potential confounders. HCRU was reported as the mean number per patient per month (PPPM) for outpatient visits (all types), physician office visits, and prescriptions filled and the proportion of patients with ≥1 hospitalization or emergency department visit in the previous 6 months. Health care costs were reported as mean PPPM. Work productivity was assessed via patient survey and reported as a mean percentage for absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment during the past week.
899 adult patients (mean age = 71.4 years; 57.2% men) were enrolled and analyzed. Compared with patients with <2 nocturia episodes per night, patients with ≥ 2 nocturia episodes had more outpatient health care visits (unadjusted mean visits PPPM: 2.1 vs. 1.6; P < 0.001; adjusted mean visits PPPM: 2.1 vs. 1.6; P = 0.017), office visits (unadjusted and adjusted mean visits PPPM: 0.9 vs. 0.7; P < 0.001), and prescriptions filled (unadjusted mean prescription fills PPPM: 3.1 vs. 2.1; P < 0.001; adjusted mean prescription fills PPPM: 3.2 vs. 2.2; P = 0.027). Patients with ≥ 2 nocturia episodes per night also displayed significantly higher outpatient health care costs (unadjusted mean PPPM costs: $676 vs. $516; P = 0.028; adjusted mean PPPM costs: $678 vs. $506; P = 0.017). In terms of work productivity impairment, patients with ≥ 2 nocturia episodes per night experienced higher rates of unadjusted (20% vs. 10%; P = 0.002) and adjusted presenteeism (20% vs. 10%; P = 0.004) and unadjusted (20% vs. 10%; P = 0.002) and adjusted overall work impairment (20% vs. 10%; P = 0.001).
Study findings demonstrate that nocturia was associated with higher outpatient encounters and related costs in the presence of a greater occurrence of nocturic episodes.
This study was funded by Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland. Neither honoraria nor payments were provided for authorship. Dmochowski is a consultant and speaker for Allergan plc and a consultant for Serenity Pharmaceuticals. Brucker is a consultant and speaker for Allergan plc, a consultant for Watkins-Conti and Avadel, and an investigator for Medtronic and Ipsen. Cole is a consultant for Allergan plc and an employee of Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group. Kawahara and Pulicharam are full-time employees of DaVita Medical Group. Burk is a consultant for Allergan plc and a health outcomes consultant. Tung is an employee of Allergan plc. Hale has served as a consultant/advisor to and has received research funding from Allergan plc. The data from this manuscript were previously presented in poster format by Steve Kawahara at the Academy of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, CA.
Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy. 2019 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Roger Dmochowski, Benjamin M Brucker, Emily Cole, Steve Kawahara, Riya Pulicharam, Caroline Burk, Amy Tung, Douglass Hale
1 Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee., 2 New York University, Langone Health, New York, New York., 3 Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego, California., 4 DaVita Medical Group, El Segundo, California., 5 Health Outcomes Consultant, Laguna Beach, California., 6 Allergan, plc, Irvine, California., 7 Urogynecology Associates, Indianapolis, Indiana.