To assess the efficacy of salt reduction for improving nocturia in patients with high salt intake.
Changes in lower urinary symptoms and frequency volume chart by salt intake (men: 8 g/day; women: ≥7 g/day) were analyzed in this prospective study. Patients were instructed to use a brochure for salt intake restriction via interview once every four weeks. The daily salt intake was estimated by using spot urine samples.
Two-hundred twenty-three (69.5%) patients were successful in reducing their daily salt intake (S group), whereas 98 (30.5%) patients failed to reduce their salt intake (F group). In the S group, nocturia improved from 2.3 ± 0.9 to 1.4 ± 1.0, and nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) improved from 30.2 ± 7.5 to 27.7 ± 7.3% (P < 0.001). In the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score (CLSS) of the S group, Q3 (urgency) improved from 1.0 ± 1.0 to 0.9 ± 1.0 (P = 0.001); Q1 (diurnal frequency) (P < 0.001), and Q2 (nocturia) also improved (P < 0.001). Moreover, the quality of life parameter improved significantly (P < 0.001). The patients in the F group did not have improvements in any symptom during the study period.
Patients with nocturia who also have high salt intake should be advised to reduce their salt intake, as a lifestyle modification. Our results support the importance of randomized clinical trials with larger populations and the appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria to conclude the clinical usefulness of salt reduction in this patient cohort.
Neurourology and urodynamics. 2019 Feb 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Tomohiro Matsuo, Yasuyoshi Miyata, Hideki Sakai
Department of Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.