Systematic review of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria and population-based evidence of their diagnostic accuracy.

Background Evidence of diagnostic accuracy for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria is currently unclear. Purpose Systematic review to determine population-based evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria based on data from frequency-volume charts.

Methods Seventeen pre-specified search terms identified 351 unique investigations published from 1990 to 2016 in BIOSIS, Embase, Embase Alerts, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Medline, and Cochrane. Thirteen original communications were included in this review based on pre-specified exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each paper regarding subject age, sex, ethnicity, health status, sample size, data collection methods, and diagnostic discrimination of proposed definitions including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Results The sample size of study cohorts, participant age, sex, ethnicity, and health status varied considerably in 13 studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of seven different definitions of nocturnal polyuria using frequency-volume chart data from 4968 participants. Most study cohorts were small, mono-ethnic, including only Caucasian males aged 50 or higher with primary or secondary polyuria that were compared to a control group of healthy men without nocturia in prospective or retrospective settings. Proposed definitions had poor discriminatory accuracy in evaluations based on data from subjects independent from the original study cohorts with findings being similar regarding the most widely evaluated definition endorsed by ICS. Conclusions Diagnostic performance characteristics for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria show poor to modest discrimination and are not based on sufficient level of evidence from representative, multi-ethnic population-based data from both females and males of all adult ages.

Acta clinica Belgica. 2018 Feb 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Tine Kold Olesen, Marie-Astrid Denys, Johan Vande Walle, Karel Everaert

a Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S , Copenhagen , Denmark., b Department of Uro-gynaecology , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium., c Department of Pediatrics and medical genetics , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium.