Nocturia is defined as the urge to urinate at night when the micturition was directly preceded and followed by sleep. Due to its negative impact on the quality of life of patients, an effective treatment for this disease has become a significant therapeutic challenge.
The aim of this article was to explain the main risk factors for the occurrence of nocturia and to present diagnostic and therapeutic schemes in the case of nocturnal polyuria (idiopathic night time polyuria).
A review of the literature was carried out and the available guidelines of international science societies, which provided the basis for the above recommendations, were analyzed.
Detailed medical history should include information concerning: lower urinary tract symptoms (including nocturia), underlying illnesses, urogenital disorders, previous surgeries and medications administered. Keeping a bladder diary is recommended. The physical examination, depending on the patient's gender, should include gynecological examination with pelvic organ prolapse assessment or prostate evaluation. In laboratory tests, a urinalysis may be used, in particular cases a cytological analysis of urine sediment may be carried out. In addition, a possible ultrasound and/or cystoscopy may be conducted. Nocturia therapy should begin with modifying dietary habits, including compliance with the fluid regimen, avoiding alcohol, coffee and tea. Moderate physical exercise is also recommended. The pharmacological treatment of nocturia caused by nocturnal polyuria is based on the use of desmopressin at a daily single dose of 25 µg for women and 50 µg for men. The use of desmopressin allows for the reduction in the number of nocturia episodes, as well as improves the overall quality of life and sleep. Treatment with desmopressin can also be considered as a form of therapy added in people with an overactive bladder or benign prostatic hyperplasia, in which nocturia is a significant clinical problem.
Desmopressin is an effective and safe first-line treatment option in pharmacological therapy of nocturia caused by nocturnal polyuria.
Central European journal of urology. 2017 Sep 25 [Epub]
Paweł Miotła, Jakub Dobruch, Marek Lipiński, Tomasz Drewa, Anna Kołodziej, Ewa Barcz, Włodzimierz Baranowski, Tomasz Rechberger, Piotr L Chłosta
Medical University of Lublin, 2 Department of Gynaecology, Lublin, Poland., Department of Urology, Postgraduate Medical Education Centre, Warsaw, Poland., 2 Department of Urology, Medical University of Łódź, Poland., Department of General and Oncologic Urology, Nicolaus Copernicus Hospital, Toruń, Poland., Urology and Urologic Oncology Department, Wrocław Medical University, Poland., Clinical Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland., Department of Gynaecological Oncology, St John's Oncological Centre, Lublin, Poland., Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow, Poland.