The Model of Interstitial Cystitis for Evaluating New Molecular Strategies of Interstitial Regeneration in Humans.

Given the recent evidence in the clinical application of regenerative medicine, mostly on integumentary systems, we focused our interests on recent bladder regeneration approaches based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in humans. IC/BPS is a heterogeneous chronic disease with not-well-understood etiology, characterized by suprapubic pain related to bladder filling and urothelium dysfunction, in which the impairment of immunological processes seems to play an important role. The histopathological features of IC include ulceration of the mucosa, edema, denuded urothelium, and increased detection of mast cells and other inflammatory cells. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this disease is essential for the selection of the right therapeutic approach. In fact, although various therapeutic strategies exist, no efficient therapy for IC/BPS has been discovered yet. This review gives an overview of the clinical and pathological features of IC/BPS, with a particular focus on the molecular pathways involved and a special interest in the ongoing few investigational therapies in IC/BPS, which use new regenerative medicine approaches, and their synergetic combination. Good knowledge of the molecular aspects related to stem cell-, PRP-, and biomaterial-based treatments, as well as the understanding of the molecular mechanism of this pathology, will allow for the selection of the right and best use of regenerative approaches of structures involving connective tissue and epithelia, as well as in other diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2024 Feb 15*** epublish ***

Elisabetta Mormone, Antonio Cisternino, Lorenzo Capone, Eugenio Caradonna, Andrea Sbarbati

Intitute for Stem-Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine and Innovative Therapies (ISBReMIT), Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Viale dei Cappuccini 1, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy., Santa Maria di Bari Hospital, Via Antonio de Ferraris 22, 70124 Bari, Italy., Department of Urology, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Viale dei Cappuccini 1, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy., Gemelli Molise S.p.a., Largo Gemelli 1, 86100 Campobasso, Italy., Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy.