Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition causing bladder inflammation. Urinary biomarkers have been assessed as suitable for the diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed at investigating the role of urinary biomarkers in identifying bladder conditions and predicting the treatment outcome of IC/BPS.
A total of 309 patients with IC/BPS and 30 controls were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a comprehensive urological workup of symptoms, pain severity, and cystoscopic hydrodistention findings including maximal bladder capacity (MBC) and glomerulation grade. Urine samples were collected to investigate the levels of urinary cytokines and chemokines. According to MBC and glomerulation grade, patients with IC/BPS were further classified into the Hunner's IC (HIC) and non-HIC groups. The urinary biomarkers between IC/BPS and control groups and HIC and non-HIC groups were compared. Moreover, the treatment response was graded according to global response assessment (GRA) scores, and urinary biomarker levels were analyzed based on different GRAs.
Patients with IC/BPS had significantly high urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 levels. Significantly higher levels of urinary interleukin-8, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL 10), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, eotaxin, and regulated-on-activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were noted in HIC than those with non-HIC and controls. Among all biomarkers, TNF-α had the best sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. There was a significant correlation between biomarker levels and GRA.
Significantly higher urine cytokines and chemokine levels were found in patients with IC/BPS. Most urinary biomarkers were significantly associated with MBC, glomerulation grade, and treatment outcome.
Biomedicines. 2022 May 17*** epublish ***
Wan-Ru Yu, Yuan-Hong Jiang, Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Department of Nursing, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan., Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Buddhist Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan.