Stress-related diseases (SRDs) are adjustment disorders triggered by stressful life changes. There is a growing body of evidence showing that stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of IC/BPS. In the present study, we investigated the association between SRDs and a subsequent association of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).
We performed a nested case-control study from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. The two-year time-varying association between SRDs and IC/BPS was explored to distinguish the short- or long-term effects of these factors. We then conducted multiple conditional logistic regressions to evaluate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IC/BPS in patients with a history of SRDs.
A total of 1103 IC/BPS patients and 4412 non-IC/BPS patients were analyzed. For all SRDs, the significantly increased risks were obtained in 2 years before IC/BPS diagnosis, and the higher OR was observed within 3 months before the diagnosis of IC/BPS. Multiple conditional logistic regressions showed that patients who had prior medical care for urinary tract infection (OR = 10.95, 95% CI = 9.07 to 13.22), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.93), peptic ulcer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.09), inflammatory bowel syndrome (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.29), autoimmune diseases (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.97), depression (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.91), sleep disorders (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.78), and allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.62) within 2 years had a significant risk of IC/BPS.
Our study demonstrates that the health care for SRDs within the previous 2 years is associated with an increased risk of subsequent IC/BPS. The time-varying association provides an important insight that helps us to identify cases with IC/BPS, especially among patients with repeated UTI visits.
Journal of clinical medicine. 2021 Nov 30*** epublish ***
Min-Hsin Yang, Jing-Yang Huang, Sung-Lang Chen, James Cheng-Chung Wei
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan., Department of Urology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan., School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.