New Frontiers or the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome - Focused on Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Low-Energy Shock Wave.

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), which is characterized by bladder pain and irritative voiding symptoms, is a frustrating disease without effective treatment. The cause is still largely not understood, although urothelium ischemia/hypoxia, apoptosis, denudation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells are common histopathological findings. The current uncertainty regarding the etiology and pathology of IC/BPS has a negative impact on its timely and successful treatment; therefore, the development of new treatment modalities is urgently needed. Herein, we present advances in our knowledge on this topic and review the potential application of regenerative medicine for the treatment of IC/BPS. This article provides information on the basic characteristics and clinical evidence of stem cells, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and low-energy shock waves (LESWs) based on a literature review with a search strategy for articles related to IC/BPS, stem cells, PRP, and LESW published in MEDLINE and PubMed. Stem cells, PRP, and LESW, which modulate inflammatory processes and promote tissue repair, have been proven to improve bladder regeneration, relieve bladder pain, inhibit bladder inflammation, and increase bladder capacity in some preclinical studies. However, clinical studies are still in their infancy. Based on the mechanisms of action of stem cells, PRP, and LESW documented in many preclinical studies, the potential applications of regenerative medicine for the treatment of IC/BPS is an emerging frontier of interest. However, solid evidence from clinical studies remains to be obtained.

International neurourology journal. 2020 Sep 30 [Epub]

Chih-Chieh Lin, Yun-Ching Huang, Wei-Chia Lee, Yao-Chi Chuang

Department of Urology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Chia-Yi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chiayi, Taiwan., Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.