Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome related to the urinary bladder. The ideal treatment should match as much as possible with the pathophysiologic causes of the IC/BPS, but the scarcely available evidence limits this approach, with the majority of available treatments that are primarily targeted to the control of symptoms. The treatment strategies have traditionally focused on the bladder, which is considered the primary end-organ and source of pain. Nevertheless, the growing body of evidence suggests a multifaceted nature of the disease with systemic components. In general, guidelines recommend the personalized and progressive approach, that starts from the more conservative options and then advances toward more invasive and combined treatments. The behavioral changes represent the first and most conservative steps. They can be combined with oral medications or progressively with intravesical instillation of drugs, up to more invasive techniques in a combined way. Despite the multiple available options, the optimal treatment is not easy to be found. Only further investigation on the etiopathogenetic mechanisms, taking into account the differences among subgroups, and the interaction between central and peripherical factors may allow providing a real improvement in the treatment and management of these patients.
Przeglad menopauzalny = Menopause review. 2020 Apr 27 [Epub]
Simone Garzon, Antonio Simone Laganà, Jvan Casarin, Ricciarda Raffaelli, Antonella Cromi, Davide Sturla, Massimo Franchi, Fabio Ghezzi
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Filippo Del Ponte" Hospital, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AOUI Verona, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.