The aetiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still unknown. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed and treatments targeting various aspects of these are used. This review looks at the existing evidence on bladder instillations and whether they could be used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms as well.
International urogynecology journal. 2020 May 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Giuseppe Alessandro Digesu, Visha Tailor, Alka A Bhide, Vik Khullar
St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK., St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK. .