Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a poorly understood chronic debilitating condition. Surgery is reserved for severe refractory cases; however, there is no consensus on patient selection or optimal approach.
To evaluate the evidence relating to the safety and efficacy of surgical interventions for treating BPS/IC.
PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for original studies, using keywords "cystectomy", "interstitial cystitis", and "bladder pain syndrome". Articles were reviewed and screened by three independent reviewers.
A total of 450 patients were identified from 20 eligible studies: mean age was 54.5 yr and 90.2% were female. The median duration of symptoms preoperatively was 60 mo (range 9-84), with a mean follow-up of 45.5 mo. A total of 448 patients underwent surgery: subtotal cystectomy with cystoplasty (48.6%), cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder (21.9%), cystectomy and ileal conduit (11.2%), and urinary diversion only (18.3%). Symptomatic improvement occurred in 77.2%, with higher rates in the total cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder group. Thirty-one patients (6.9%) required secondary total cystectomy and/or ileal conduit diversion; 48.4% subsequently improved. Seventeen studies reported 102 complications overall (26.5%). Overall mortality was 1.3%.
Overall surgical intervention is associated with a 23% risk of failure to improve symptoms. Higher rates of improvement were reported in patients with total cystectomy. Interpretation should be guarded given the small patient number, multiple centres, and variable outcome measurements. There is a need for prospective randomised studies to answer questions regarding patient selection and optimal surgical approach.
In this review, we looked at the outcomes of surgery for treatment-refractory bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. We found overall symptom improvement in 77.2% of patients with a complication rate of 26.5%. However, there remains a need for further studies of higher quality to identify patients who will have symptom improvement and the best surgical option.
European urology focus. 2020 Feb 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Nadir I Osman, David G Bratt, Alison P Downey, Francesco Esperto, Richard D Inman, Christopher R Chapple
Department of Urology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK., Department of Urology, Campus Biomedico University of Rome, Rome, Italy.