Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a symptomatic disorder characterized by pelvic pain and urinary frequency. Immunological responses are considered as one of the possible etiologies of IC/BPS. In this review, we focused on emerging targets, especially on those modulating immunological mechanisms for the treatments of IC/BPS. Area covered: This review was based on the literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, for which key words following bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and/or cyclosporine A (CyA) were used. We discussed current treatments and the drugs targeting the immune responses including CyA and other drugs with different mechanisms including NGF antibodies and P2X3 antagonists. Expert commentary: IC/BPS is often difficult to treat by current treatments. Immunosuppression agents, especially CyA are considered as effective treatments for IC/BPS with Hunner's lesion because these drugs suppress the inflammatory responses in the bladder underlying urinary symptoms of the disease. Base on the previous literatures, we should use CyA for the refractory IC/BPS, especially that with Hunner's lesion due to its side effects. New drugs targeting other mechanisms such as urothelial or afferent nerve dysfunction or new delivery systems such as sustained drug releasing devices or gene therapy techniques may be promising for the future treatments of IC/BPS.
Expert review of clinical pharmacology. 2018 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print]
Teruyuki Ogawa, Osamu Ishizuka, Tomohiro Ueda, Pradeep Tyagi, Michael B Chancellor, Naoki Yoshimura
a Department of Urology , Shinshu University School of Medicine , Matsumoto , Japan., c Department of Urology , Ueda Clinic , Kyoto , Japan., b Department of Urology , University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , U.S.A ., d Department of Urology , Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine , Royal Oak , MI , U.S.A .